Such interactions across cultures often times can be difficult even in the best of situations.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objective To investigate the experiences of professionals who administered and evaluated treatments for homosexuality in Britain since the s. Design A nationwide study based on qualitative interviews.
Participants 30 health professionals who developed and practised treatments for homosexuality. Results A range of treatments were developed to make homosexuals into heterosexuals, the most common of which were behavioural interventions.
Treatments were based on little evidence of effectiveness and were open to the criticism that legal or social pressures coerced patients. Treatments did not become mainstream within British mental health services. With hindsight, professionals realised that they had not appreciated the influence of social context on sexual behaviour.
Most now regarded same sex attraction as compatible with psychological health, although a small minority considered that the option to try to become heterosexual should still be available to patients who desire it. Conclusions Social and political assumptions sometimes lie at the heart of what we regard as mental pathology and serve as a warning for future practice.
Introduction Legal sanctions against homosexual behaviour together with prejudice against gay men and lesbians rose to a peak after the second world war and laid the foundation on which interest in psychological interventions to alter sexuality increased sharply in the s and 70s.
Here we examine the motivations and experiences of professionals who developed and practised these treatments and place them in the context of their professional and personal lives and the historical period in which they worked. Methods All participants gave written, informed consent to take part.
We had previously identified professionals who had published research in this specialty 1 and asked each to name other professionals who had administered treatments or were knowledgeable about them. We also used professional contacts, advertisements, articles, and programmes in the national media and names given by participants in the accompanying paper Online First, bmj.
Analysis As in our earlier paper, 2 we approached the narratives using a chronological framework that formed the basis for a more detailed analysis. We used the computer software package NVivo to break down the material into manageable parts.
All authors undertook a series of discussions about emerging themes and atypical cases. Results We identified 44 professionals, of whom 30 aged 50 to 80 years agreed to participate.
Some refused because they thought the topic was no longer relevant or feared receiving unwanted media attention. Two psychoanalysts had died and one declined to be interviewed.
We interviewed 12 psychiatrists, 16 psychologists, one nurse specialist, and one electrician who had developed electric shock equipment. All but two had worked in the NHS. Life and career before administering treatments The Maudsley Hospital in London established behaviour treatments in the s.
The emerging discipline of clinical psychology was influenced by seminal work that suggested neurotic disorders were acquired through faulty learning and might respond to behaviour modification.
Most professionals became involved by accident rather than design. That was a clinical placement. Basically the first year I was there, more or less all I ever did was shove electricity down homosexual patients.
However, several came from pure science backgrounds and lacked awareness of the social and cultural context of human behaviour. Despite describing open minded family backgrounds, most had grown up in the same era of conservatism about sexuality as their patients. Most encountered gay men and lesbians for the first time as inexperienced young clinicians.
They often described how treatments were experimental in nature, with scant regard for efficacy or ethics: You never thought about the morality of what you were doing.
You were effectively a technician.LGBT rights in the United Kingdom; Location of the United Kingdom. Same-sex sexual intercourse legal status where treatment for homosexuality has always been less common than in the US. "The Royal College shares the concern of both the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association that positions espoused by.
With the exception of South Africa and Cape Verde, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Africa are very limited in comparison to many other areas of the world..
Homosexuality is found throughout the African continent. Out of the 54 states recognised by the United Nations or African Union or both, the International Gay and Lesbian Association stated in that.
Discover all facts and statistics on Homosexuality (gays and lesbians) in the U.S. on r-bridal.com! Homosexuality is the condition of "sexual desire or behavior directed toward a person or persons of one's own sex.".
Homosexuality has a number of causal factors that influence its ultimate origination in individuals; these factors will be addressed shortly. In addition, homosexuality has a variety of effects on individuals and r-bridal.com, some of the historical events, religious matters.
The United Kingdom and the United States of America. LGBTQ Issues. Homosexuality. LGBTQ. The United Kingdom.
The United States of America. What are the differences in the treatment of LGBT people in the UK vs the U.S.? Update Cancel. Answer Wiki. 4 Answers. How does the treatment of aboriginal peoples in Mexico compare with the U.S.
and Canada? LGBT Rights in United Kingdom: homosexuality, gay marriage, gay adoption, serving in the military, sexual orientation discrimination protection, changing legal .