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It was used again in in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: The first German use, Biologie, was in a translation of Biolgy coursework work. The term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur —22 by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranuswho announced: The science Biolgy coursework concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology [Biologie] or the doctrine of life [Lebenslehre].
Although modern biology is a relatively recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indian subcontinentand China.
However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and later more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life.
Aristotle's successor at the LyceumTheophrastuswrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. Medicine was especially well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew heavily on Aristotelian thought, especially in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life.
Biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek 's dramatic improvement of the microscope.
It was then that scholars discovered spermatozoabacteriainfusoria and the diversity of microscopic life.
Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell.
Then, inSchleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that 1 the basic unit of organisms is the cell and 2 that individual cells have all the characteristics of lifealthough they opposed the idea that 3 all cells come from the division of other cells.
Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchowhowever, by the s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in variations of which have been in use ever sinceand in the s introduced scientific names for all his species.
Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought ; his work influenced the evolutionary theories of both Lamarck and Darwin. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could then be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would further develop and perfect them.
The discovery of the physical representation of heredity came along with evolutionary principles and population genetics. In the s and early s, experiments pointed to DNA as the component of chromosomes that held the trait-carrying units that had become known as genes. A focus on new kinds of model organisms such as viruses and bacteriaalong with the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA inmarked the transition to the era of molecular genetics.
From the s to present times, biology has been vastly extended in the molecular domain. Finally, the Human Genome Project was launched in with the goal of mapping the general human genome. This project was essentially completed in with further analysis still being published.
The Human Genome Project was the first step in a globalized effort to incorporate accumulated knowledge of biology into a functional, molecular definition of the human body and the bodies of other organisms.
Foundations of modern biology Cell theory Human cancer cells with nuclei specifically the DNA stained blue.Courses. The online catalog includes the most recent changes to courses and degree requirements that have been approved by the Faculty Senate, including changes that are not yet effective.
A complete coursework is one that will not only show your understanding of a course but also carry at least one brilliant idea.
That is the only way your work will be regarded as being above average and will earn a high score. Online Biology College Degree Programs with Degree Level Summaries.
Get info about online programs in biology. Read about program requirements, course topics and degree levels, as well as career.
Free-response questions: AP Biology exam: Studying for the AP Biology exam? Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.: Studying for the AP Biology exam? Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
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