This chart attempts to capture and present concisely the major elements of Erikson's theory, drawn from various Erikson books, diagrams and other references, including Childhood and Society ; Identity and the Life Cycle ; The Life Cycle Completed: Overview Erikson's psychosocial theory is widely and highly regarded. As with any concept there are critics, but generally Erikson's theory is considered fundamentally significant. Erikson was a psychoanalyst and also a humanitarian.
On Freud Psychoanalysis was given birth by Sigmund Freud at the turn of the century. Freud conceptualized the mind, metaphorically, as an ancient, buried ruin which had to been unearthed much like an archeologist would unearth the treasures of an ancient civilization.
Freud's influence can be traced from his hard-core natural science background as a student of neurology, as well as his rarely acknowledged debt to Franz Brentano also a teacher of Edmund Husserlwho taught Freud to understand that consciousness is always intentional.
This tension between a more phenomenological approach to understanding the mind and Freud's inclination toward natural scientific explanation is a tension which exists in all of his work and writings, as well as throughout all of psychoanalytic theory following Freud.
In fact, this tension between understanding and explanation can be said to be a tension which exists, whether acknowledged or not, in all of the human sciences see, for example, Dilthey. Freud's version of psychoanalysis had its predecessor in the work with hysterics conducted by neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim, who, using hypnosis, discovered that the origins of hysteria were mental Freuds stages of psychosexual development than overtly physiological.
Freud's colleague, Josef Breuer, first began using his modified technique of hypnosis to treat the famous hysteric patient with the alias 'Anna O,' who we now know to be Bertha Pappenheim.
This technique involved placing the patient in a hypnotic trance and removing the symptoms through the use of posthypnotic suggestion. Freud, a poor hypnotist, became especially adept at listening to these patients, and, along with Breuer, discovered that the origins of the hysteria appeared to involve emotionally charged events in the patients' past.
When the patient, through talking, followed associations in her memory, she was able to recover the forgotten event, which led to the cure. Freud eventually gave up the process of using hypnotism for the use of a technique he came to call "free association," in which the patient was encouraged to put aside all inhibitions and follow her associations, which would eventually, even without hypnosis, lead to the recovery of unconscious memory.
From the period of to roughlyFreud's innovations led to the development of his theory, all of which were developed from his clinical work with patients. Initially theoretical formulations led to the topographic model of the psyche, which Freud categorized into three different subsections: Further, Freud became more and more sophisticated in his technique of psychoanalysis, and he became particularly adept at using his patients's subjective impressions of him to help the patient to discover the origins of the unconscious memory or memories which led to the symptoms from which she suffered.
It followed that Freud developed a theory that patients resisted remembering the trauma, and this 'resistance' was evident in disruptions of the free association process. Such disruptions constituted what Freud called 'defenses,' and, most notably, the defenses involved what Freud called 'transference,' the transference of conflictual thoughts and feelings to the analyst.
Freud also came to acknowledge that unconscious events are traceable in other phenomena, as well, including dreams, slips of the tongue, and in jokes.
From his work with patients, Freud was eventually led to develop a more and more sophisticated theory of the human psyche which became increasingly understood according to a developmental model.
Freud, by observing his patients, found that many of the memories uncovered by his patients were sexual in nature and reverted back to early childhood memories. From these observations, Freud developed his controversial theory of childhood sexuality.
Freud eventually justified these observations with a generalized theory of an instinctual drive, which became the foundation for his theory. At first, Freud felt that such instincts were largely sexual in nature.
Later, he conceded that instincts also involved aggressive drives, as well as sexual drives. In any case, Freud's development model, a theory of 'psychosexual development,' traced the development of childhood seuxality through various stages, organized according to 'erogenous zones,' bodily zones which are highly sexually charged at certain stages in development: Using the metaphor of a hydraulic system, Freud imagined the instincts as consisting of a form of energy he called 'libido.
This 'primary process thinking' largely consists of phantasy, omnipotent thinking, and exists outside of linear time -- in short, it demands immediate gratification.These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido (roughly translated as sexual drives or instincts) on a different area of the body.
Freud advanced a theory of personality development that centered on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on the individual psyche.
At particular points in the developmental process, he claimed, a single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation.
Erik Erikson was an ego psychologist who developed one of the most popular and influential theories of development. While his theory was impacted by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud's work, Erikson's theory centered on psychosocial development rather than psychosexual r-bridal.com stages that make up his theory are as follows.
SIGMUND FREUD "When you think of this dividing up of the personality into ego, super-ego and id, you must not imagine sharp dividing lines such as are artificially drawn in the field of political geography.
Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen? Erikson's first psychosocial crisis occurs during the first year or so of life (like Freud's oral stage of psychosexual development). SEC 4 Page 1 of 6 7. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES OF WHAT IS PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT: Personality development has been a major topic of interest for some of the most prominent thinkers in psychology.