Fruit waste contains reusable substances of high value and potential use.
Equations 2 - 5 were used to calculate the change in the reactant concentration with time. The method of Kurschner-Hanack  was used to analyze for the concentration of cellulose and hemicellulose in the plantain peels. This method is a gravimetric method where the weight of cellulose and hemicellulose is measured when nitric acid and Acetic acid dissolved every other component of the plantain peels; cellulose and hemicellulose are insoluble in water, acetic acid and nitric acid.
The flask is connected to a reflux condenser and heated with a heating mantle for 2 hours. The dried residue is weighed as the cellulose and hemiccellulose content of the sample. Results and Discussion 3. The values agree closely with the work done by Ighodaro which reported that the cellulose content of ripe plantain peels is Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Plantain Peels 3.
The goodness of fit of the model was checked by the determination coefficient R2.
The value of the adjusted determination coefficient Adj. There is a The model equations for hydrolysis in terms of the actual factor with all the terms and without the insignificant terms are given in Equations 8 and 9 respectively. Deleting the non significant terms, the model equation reduces to: The result of the verification of the optimum numerical solution showed that the optimum solution predicted the real solution closely.
The deviation of the experimental yield of glucose from the predicted yield was only 6. The composition of plantain peels.
The graph of the predicted against the actual values shown in Figure 1 also confirmed the closeness of the predicted values and the actual values. The data points of the optimization runs fall along the diagonal of the squared graph showing the close relationship of the predicted and the actual points.
In other words, the quadratic model was adequate for the analysis. Factors and Interactive Effects on Hydrolysis The contour and 3D graphs of Figures show the factors and the interactive effects on the yield of simple sugar Glucose. The effect of temperature on the yield of glucose was however significant as confirmed in Table 5.
The plot of the predicted values against the actual values for hydrolysis optimization. The contour and 3D plots of time against temperature. The contour and 3D plots of pH against temperature. Temperature has effective interaction with other factors however only the interaction with the substrate concentration was significant Table 5.
This significant interaction can be seen in Figure 4 where the contour plot of temperature against substrate concentration is somewhat curves in contrast to Figure 2 and Figure 3 where the contour plots of temperature against pH and time are somewhat straight lines showing non-significant interactions.
Figures show that irrespective of any interaction, the highest glucose yield can be achieved at room temperature. He stated that the hydrolysis increases with temperature up to the optimum which it declined and that the increase in temperature is due to corresponding increase in kinetic energy and the decline after the optimum is due to enzyme denaturation.
From a pH of 3. Below the optimum pH to the optimum pH the rate of the increase in glucose yield with pH was higher than the rate of decrease above the optimum pH. The contour and 3D plots of substrate concentration against temperature. The interactive effects of the pH with other factors were not significant.
This was shown in Table 5 where the p-values are greater than 0. This can also be seen on the contour graphs Figure 3Figure 5 and Figure 7 where the contour plots of pH with temperature, time and substrate concentration are somewhat straight lines at some points. Figure 3 shows that between pH of 5.
Figure 5 and Figure 7 show that as the pH increases, both time of incubation and substrate concentration should be keep high to get higher glucose yield.
Akponah and Akpomie  reported that the A. The pH of the solution has effects on the structure and activity of the enzyme. Enzymes are amphoteric molecules containing a large number of acid and basic groups mainly situated on their surface.Pineapple Peel Hydrolysis by T. viride Crude Extract Passion fruit peel was treated with 1 M NaOH, autoclaved at °C for 30 min and washed with distilled water.
The pH was then neutralized with dilute phosphoric acid and the mixture was dried at 70 °C [ 30 ]. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sulphuric acid treated biomass was % and % when pretreatment was done at 90 °C and °C at same acid concentration, while sulfide shows % and % hydrolysis yield respectively.
The effect of time, acid concentration, temperature and solid concentration on dilute-acid hydrolysis of orange peels was investigated.
A central composite rotatable experimental design (CCRD) was applied to study the individual effects of these hydrolysis factors and also their interdependence effects. The phenol- sulfuric acid method was used to determine the concentration of sugar content present in the substrate.
The test revealed that the dilute acid hydrolysis is an effective way and can saccharify pineapple peelings based on the standard curve.
"Saccharification Of Pineapple Peelings Through Dilute Acid Hydrolysis" Essays and Research Papers Saccharification Of Pineapple Peelings Through Dilute Acid Hydrolysis Investigatory Project (Pineapple Peelings to Vinegar) Introduction A.
Background of the Study A Pineapple is a fruit wherein you have to peel off the peelings to eat it, like any other fruits. In fact, dilute acid hydrolysis of OPW up to °C was reported to be unable to hydrolyze pectin to galacturonic acid, whereas an ACSE pretreatment at °C for 6 min yielded as much as % of pectin solubilization.
Thus, such solubilization yields should .