Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th centurywho had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts.
Humanism — a history of the hijacked Credo of our species Jul 3rd, By admin Category: Term freely applied to a variety of beliefs, methods, and philosophies that place central emphasis on the human realm.
Most frequently, however, the term is used with reference to a system of education and mode of inquiry that developed in northern Italy during the 13th and 14th centuries and later spread through continental Europe and England.
But humanism sought its own philosophical bases in far earlier times and, moreover, continued to exert some of its power long after the end of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanism in all its forms defined itself in its straining toward this ideal.
Humanitas meant the development of human virtue, in all its forms, to its fullest extent. Just as action without insight was held to be aimless and barbaric, insight without action was rejected as barren and imperfect.
Humanitas called for a fine balance of action and contemplation, a balance born not of compromise but of complementarity.
The goal of such fulfilled and balanced virtue was political, in the broadest sense of the word. The purview of Renaissance humanism included not only the education of the young but also the guidance of adults including rulers via philosophical poetry and strategic rhetoric.
It included not only realistic social criticism but also utopian hypotheses, not only painstaking reassessments of history but also bold reshapings of the future.
Humanism had an evangelical dimension: Greek and Roman thought, available in a flood of rediscovered or newly translated manuscripts, provided humanism with much of its basic structure and method. Compared with the typical productions of medieval Christianity, these pagan works had a fresh, radical, almost avant-garde tonality.
Indeed, recovering the classics was to humanism tantamount to recovering reality. Classical philosophy, rhetoric, and history were seen as models of proper method—efforts to come to terms, systematically and without preconceptions of any kind, with perceived experience.
Moreover, Classical thought considered ethics qua ethics, politics qua politics: Classical virtue, in examples of which the literature abounded, was not an abstract essence but a quality that could be tested in the forum or on the battlefield.
Finally, classical literature was rich in eloquence. In particular since humanists were normally better at Latin than they were at GreekCicero was considered to be the pattern of refined and copious discourse.
In eloquence humanists found far more than an exclusively aesthetic quality. As an effective means of moving leaders or fellow citizens toward one political course or another, eloquence was akin to pure power.
Humanists cultivated rhetoric, consequently, as the medium through which all other virtues could be communicated and fulfilled. Of these excepting the historical movement described above there are three basic types: Accepting the notion that Renaissance humanism was simply a return to the Classics, some historians and philologists have reasoned that Classical revivals occurring anywhere in history should be called humanistic.
Thus, it is customary to refer to scholars in these fields as humanists and to their activities as humanistic. Humanism and related terms are frequently applied to modern doctrines and techniques that are based on the centrality of human experience.
Not only is such a large assortment of definitions confusing, but the definitions themselves are often redundant or impertinent.
To say that professors in the many disciplines known as the humanities are humanists is to compound vagueness with vagueness, for these disciplines have long since ceased to have or even aspire to a common rationale.The Renaissance was a period of "rebirth" in arts, science and European society.
It was a time of transition from the ancient world to the modern. Renaissance humanism in all its forms defined itself in its straining toward this ideal. No discussion of humanism, therefore, can have validity without an understanding of humanitas.
Humanitas meant the development of . Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period – HUMANISM Derived from studia humanitatis which means “studies of humanity” This movement started in the early part of the 14th century.
only the first phase. and a period of exploration. One mode of thinking came to typify Renaissance ideas: Humanism. The term derived from a program of studies called the "studia humanitatis," but the idea of calling this "Humanism" really arose in the 19th century.
There remains a question over what exactly Renaissance Humanism was.
Watch video · The New Humanism: Cornerstone of the Renaissance Thanks to the patronage of these wealthy elites, Renaissance-era writers and thinkers were able to spend their days doing just that. The ideal embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance humanism, the development of national languages, and the breakup of the old feudal structures.
While the spirit of the Renaissance ultimately took many forms, it was expressed earliest by the intellectual movement called humanism.