Visit Website Did you know? During their invasion of the western Carolinas inBritish soldiers took the young Andrew Jackson prisoner. When Jackson refused to shine one officer's boots, the officer struck him across the face with a saber, leaving lasting scars. Jackson read law in his late teens and earned admission to the North Carolina bar in
Jefferson made a deal with the state of Georgia inpromising to secure the title to all Cherokee land within the state in exchange for Georgia giving up it's claim on territory that later became the states of Mississippi and Alabama. Inthe Louisiana Purchase transferred title of a vast area west of the Mississippi River from France to the United States, giving Jefferson the means to not only honor the deal with Georgia, but also to solve the "Indian problem" in the eastern U.
His plan was to acculturate the Indians, manipulate them into incurring trade debts, and then pressure them into paying off those debts by exchanging their land for parcels of the newly acquired U.
Indian nations that refused to be assimilated would be removed by force. Many Indian nations did make land cessions in following years.
By Cherokee territory had been reduced to the point that they felt they could cede no more. The Cherokee National Council passed a law that required Council approval of any future land transfers, and the penalty for violating the law was death.
Inpressure for Indian removal to the west greatly increased after the Cherokee adopted a constitution and a republican form of government modeled on that of the United States and began publishing a bi-lingual newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix. This enraged many citizens of Georgia, and when the discovery of gold on Cherokee territory began to be public knowledge, Georgia's desire for the land reached a fever pitch.
Barely a month after his election, the Georgia state legislature passed a law annexing Cherokee land in the state, extending Georgia state law over the Cherokee, declaring all Cherokee laws null and void after Juneand banning all Cherokees and Creeks as witnesses against any white man in court.
This was the first of a series of oppressive laws aimed at forcing the Cherokee out of Georgia. The Cherokee refused to recognize Georgia's authority on Cherokee land, and the state began to actively harass Cherokee citizens. In his State of the Union address in December,Andrew Jackson proposed that the president of the United States be authorized to exchange land in the west for Indian land in the east and to assist the Indians with their "removal".
This exchange would require ratified treaties and would be "voluntary" for the Indians, but for the tribes who refused Jackson made it clear that their existence as nations would not be tolerated and they would be subject to the laws of the states.
In February Jackson's proposal was introduced in Congress as legislation commonly referred to as the Indian Removal Act. The bill was very controversial and the debate in Congress was fierce, with opposition in the Senate lead by Theodore Frelinghuysen, who gave a 6-hour speech against the bill at one point.
Senators and Congressmen on both sides of the issue introduced many memorials from their constituents supporting or opposing the bill. A month later, the Jacksonians finally won the fight when the act passed the House by an even narrower 6-vote margin, to 97, on May Jackson wasted no time in signing the bill into law on May 28, Many Muscogee Creek had already emigrated west under earlier treaties.
In leaders of the Muscogee remaining in Alabama signed a removal treaty, but the majority resisted leaving their ancestral homeland and in the U. Some managed to avoid removal and stayed behind and eventually gained federal recognition as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians.
The Seminole in Florida signed the Treaty of Payne's Landing inagreeing to move west if suitable land was found. A delegation of chiefs toured the proposed area and supposedly signed a treaty at Fort Gibson in Arkansas Territory inagreeing that the land was acceptable, but when they returned home they renounced the treaty, with some saying they never signed it and others saying they were forced to sign.
The majority of Seminoles refused to move, and tensions eventually erupted into the Second Seminole War in This war lasted 7 years and resulted in the forced removal of just over 3, Seminoles.
A small number of Seminoles managed to hide out in the swamps of south Florida. Despite a Third Seminole War in the 's, they never signed a peace treaty and their descendants are still there.
The Chickasaw in Mississippi signed a removal treaty in the summer ofbut suitable land in the west could not be found.
In they agreed to accept financial compensation for their land.Bank Officers Handbook of Commercial Banking Law in USA (6th Ed.) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free.
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Console Living Room. Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River, specifically to a designated Indian Territory (roughly, modern Oklahoma).
Full text of "Reconstructing American Historical Cinema - From Cimarron To Citizen Kane - J. E. Smyth" See other formats. East Tennessee Historical Society Lesson Plans: From Tennessee to the White House, Vol. VI 0 From Tennessee to the White House The Journeys of Jackson, Polk, and Johnson I will moderate the discussion between pro-India removal and anti-Indian removal.
Indian side vs. White side; will use Venn diagram and will argue this. The Indian Removal Act, passed with strong support from President Andrew Jackson, authorizes the federal government to negotiate treaties with eastern tribes exchanging their lands for land in the.