Origins[ edit ] Record of a Red Seal license, dated 11 January Their commerce disappeared around with the rise of Chinese merchants and the intervention of Portuguese and Spanish ships, and corresponds with the beginnings of the Red Seal system. When the first Europeans started to navigate in the Pacific Ocean see also Nanban trade periodthey regularly encountered Japanese ships, such as when the Spanish welcomed in Manila in a storm-battered Japanese junk bound for Siam, or when the Dutch circumnavigator Olivier van Noort encountered a ton Japanese junk in the Philippines in Decemberand on the same voyage a Red Seal ship with a Portuguese captain off Borneo through which they learned about the arrival of William Adams in Japan. Red Seal system[ edit ] Sueyoshi red seal ship inwith foreign pilots and sailors.
This prized pachyderm features strongly in the Royal Chronicles and foreign visitors have long been mesmerized by the animal. Elephants are characters in countless folk stories and they appear on hundreds of temple murals across the country.
Elephants have been used as work animals, vehicles of war, and incorporated into religious ceremonies throughout Siamese history.
White elephants were especially highly esteemed; often seen as a Royal incarnate or an auspicious omen. The first record of a white elephant being captured was in during the reign of King Borommatrailokanat Amatyakul The capture of white elephants continued to be featured in later Royal Chronicle records.
It is debatable when Siamese first began to train elephants and incorporate them into local culture. One theory is that the practice of domesticating elephants wild elephants could have been brought into the region along with migrants from India. This could partially explain why Brahmin priests still play such an important role in ceremonies relating to elephants - including the replacements of phallic-looking lingam wooden posts at the elephant kraal.
In may be to no coincidence that Siam exported so many trained elephants to India. In the second capital city of Ayutthaya, there was a clear administrative structure pertaining to the use of elephants.
Members of the Elephant Corp had to obey the Law of Treason, which punished them by death for desertion or neglect of duties p The Cavalry Department Kram Asvaraja for horse was attached to the Elephant department, which indicated its lesser importance p Chronology of the Kraals Royal Chronicles first mention of elephants was in relation to a succession struggle in After the death of King Inthracha, the two elder sons, Ay Phraya and Yi Phraya, fought on elephant back to determine who would inherit the throne.
As a result, both princes were severely wounded and died from combat. He promptly commanded that two chedis be built on the site where his brothers engaged in combat Cushman Both chedi can be seen today in front of Wat Ra ch a B urana.
The original elephant kraal was located on the northeastern corner of the Grand Palace. Other maps by westerners clearly show elephant stables on this street Vingboons c.
Traces of elephant rope and other equipment were found at one temple located on elephant street, It is assumed that the elephant kraal at Phaniat was established soon after the foundation of the city.
Both kraals functioned more or less simultaneously. King Chakkraphat placed great faith in war elephants and tried to capture as many of the animals as he could.
Evidence suggests that he once sent an envoy to China in with a white elephant as a gift, but unfortunately the animal died during passage Garnier White elephants were such a highly valued commodity that an entire war started when King Chakkraphat refused to present a white elephant to an envious Burmese king.
This became known as the White Elephant War. The number of elephants in old Ayutthaya has never been clear.
Van Vliet estimated tamed elephants, which were attended to by mahouts each Van Vliet Dutch trader Joost Schouten wrote that over 3, tame elephants existed in the Siamese kingdom Manley Elephants were often used to for punitive measures. A common form of capital punishment was to have elephants trample someone to death.
At other times elephants would toss a convict into the air or roll them around like a ball.
A lesser form of punishment was being sent out to cut grass for elephants. Kings would use elephants to deliver robes to Buddhist monks as part of the elaborate kathin ceremony connected to Buddhist lent. The king would ride on the back of an elephant, Inthe Burmese King Tabinshwehti invaded Ayutthaya.
As was the practice of the time, King Chakkraphat charged directly into battle while mounted on an elephant.
In , Rama Tibodi I (–69) founded the kingdom of Ayutthaya, which dominated Siamese history for four centuries. A new capital city was established and Tibodi named the capital after Rama, the hero of the Ramayana, an important Indian epic. The quest for the holy water: Ayutthaya's ever-changing waterways. Essay on the ancient waterways surrounding the city of Ayutthaya. Last update 15 February Historical Patterns Thailands Political Development History Essay. Contemporary Thai politics are the result of continuous and incremental changes in the system for more than years since the Ayutthaya kingdom (–).
He met the leader of the Burmese army on the battlefield northwest of the city island, in the vicinity of Wat Phukhao Thongand they engaged in a dual on top of elephants.
One local legend is that his wife, Queen Suriyothai, disguised herself as the king and charged into battle atop an elephant, heroically sacrificing herself on the battlefield.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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The kingdom of Ayutthaya was from the century. It is located in north of Bangkok.
It is also known as Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya. The city was founded in by king U Thong, who went there to escape a cholera outbreak in Suphan Buri and proclaimed it the capital of his kingdom, often referred to as the Ayutthaya kingdom or Siam.
The Kingdom Of Ayutthaya History Essay. The kingdom of Ayutthaya was from the century. It is located in north of Bangkok. It is also known as Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya.
The city. The quest for the holy water: Ayutthaya's ever-changing waterways. Essay on the ancient waterways surrounding the city of Ayutthaya. Last update 15 February The Ayutthaya Kingdom (/ ɑː ˈ j uː t ə j ə /; Thai: อยุธยา, Thai pronunciation: [ʔajúttʰajaː]; also spelled Ayudhya or Ayodhaya) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from to